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Geography

   Location, Boundaries, Area & Population

The district lies between 26º 47' and 27º- 20' north latitude and 81º 30' and 82º 46' east longitude It is head quarter of Devi Patan division which was constituted by praline of Faizabad division District Balrampur makes its boundaries in north. To its west it is bounded by district Bahraich and some part of Srawasti on the east by the district Basti . In the south it is separated from district's Bara Banki and Faizabad by the river Ghaghara . In shape it is very irregular and seems as Cup widest in North narrowest in south . It has got physical boundaries on two sides Kuon river in the North and as Ghaghar

   Location & Boundaries

a river in the South. Its length from Jarwal road in the West to Katra (Shivadayal Ganj) is 106 kms and width from kuaon in the north to Paska in the south is 77 kms.

   Area

Before the division of district in 1997 it cover's on area of 7331 sq. km. on 25 May 1997 a new district Balrampur was constituted by separation of its 40% northern parts . Remaining area of the district Gonda is now 4448sq. kms. Owing to the fluvial action Ghaghara frequent changes take place in the area of the district .

   Population

The first census of the district was done in 1881. Population was counted 1270926 at that time . Population density was 442 person per sq. mile .In 1891 it was 1459229 .A slow decrease was recorded in first census of 20th century when population was found 1403529 here in 1901. In 1911 it increases 0-64 percent and become 1412519 . This trend is going on till now . In 1921 the population of the district was recorded 1473389 and in 1931 it was 1576003 . According to report of census 1941 population came 1719644 . After independence first census was occurred in 1951. The population was 1877484 at that time which increases upto 2073237 in 1961. According to 1971 census there was 2302929 person in district . In 1981 it was 28-35 lakh which increases up to 35-73 lakh in 1991 . After division of district in 1997 calculated population of the district is 23-21 lakh.This figure is derived from the census report of 1991. The male population is 12-37 lakh and female 10-84 lakh . The increasing rate which was 0-64 in first decade of the 20th century was recorded 4-31% in 1911-1921 and 6-96% in 1921 to 1931. It became 9-11% in 1931 to 1941. Population growth rate was 9-18 between 1941 to 1951 which increases upto 10-41% in 1951 to 1961 decade . In 1961 to 1971 the population growth rate was 11.04% . A huge increase was recorded in 71 to 81 when it rises upto 20-96 percent.It was 25-98% between 1981 to 1991 decade.

   Relief

As for as the relif of the district is concerned, there is no mountain, plateau or derest is the district as such. The general slope of the district is from west to east, but it is north to south in the Western part. It can be divided into physiographic division.

   1- Uparhar
   2- Tarhar Rivers
Rivers

Rivers have got Immense significance in the development of civlization as a whole. They have played an important role in the development of socalled backward district Gonda. The drainage of Gonda comprises Ghayhra,Saryu,Terhi, Manwar,Bisuhi, & kuwaon rivers.

   KUWANA-

Tenus Nala rises in Bahraich district and after a course of about 13 km. It is known as Kuwana river. After flowing about 4 km. Further as Kuwana river it enters Gonda district. It thence flows along the northern border of the pargana as far as the boundary of the Utraula tahsil, and then separates Sadullahanagar from pargana Utraula, forming the dividing line between Burhapara and the Basti district. The river is fed by two small streams- Jadha Nala & Pindariya Nala- flowing down from the uparhar, in the north of the Gonda, besides Singha in Sadullahnagar. And an insignificant watercourse which has no distinctive name flowing through the central portion of Utraula. The Kuwana is a sluggish stream & rarely changes its course.

   BISUHI

South of the Kuwana is the Bisuhi a small stream of a similar character.It rises near village Ghuchwapur in Gonda tahsil. It flow for some distance nearly due east, & then, after having traversed the whole of the north of Gonda. Takes a southerly course and enters the Utraula tahsil, where it separates Sadullahnagar from Mankapur & Burhapara from Babhanipair. It leaves the district after a course of about 112 km. Just before its junction with the Kuwana. It seldom causes any damage by inundation.

   MANWAR

Further south is the Manwar, an insignificant stream, which rises in the centre of pargana Gonda, then flows thourgh the middle of pargana Mankapur & after skirting the Tikri forest, enters the Basti district. The Manwar is a small river with an irregular channel, & the land in its neighborhood is often clothed with jungle, while at places there arewide stretches of poor soil covered with grass.

   CHANDAI-

Chandai rises near village Ekman which is about 9 km. North-West of Bidyanagar & joins Manwar where it leaves the district. After separating the Mankapur & Mahadeva parganas winds round the western & souhern edge of the Tikri forest. The Chandai is a very sluggish steam, and the in its neighborhood is generally swampy.

   TERHI

Below the southern edge of the uparhar flows the Terhi, a stream which rises in Bahraich & is fed by the water of the great Baghel Tal near Pura Gosain. It enters the district on the extreme west of pargana Gonda, then separates that pargana from Paharpur and Gunwarich, and further east from the boundary between the Mahadeva & digsir parganas. Leaving these, it flows through the southernpars of Nawabganj & joins the Ghaghara a few km. Above Ayodhya. The Terhi as its name implies, has a very winding & irregular course. Although in former days it appears to have changed its channel repeatedly, the result of this being found in the legend of the destruction of Khurasa, it now flows in a well defined bed though in places it is fringed by swampy ground. Elsewhere, and especially in pargana Digsir. Its banks are sandy & the land in its neighbourhood is of very inferior quality. During the rains the river swells to a considerable size, but at other times of the year it only carries a small volume of water.

   SARYU

Between the Terhi and the Ghghara there are several small streams, especially in the Gunwarich pargana, flowing into the latter river. The chief of these is the Saryu, which rises in the Bahraich district and joins the main stream near Paska. Others are the Kundwa and Beli, which unite near Begumganj & flow into the Ghaghara near Dalennagar. All these streams are insignificant drainage channels and are of little use or importance. When the tarhar experiences heavy rains, they not only increase in volume & do much damage by inundation, but are also often apt to change their course.

   GHAGHARA

The Ghaghara is the name given to the united waters of the Kauriala, Saryu, and Chauka & other rivers which drain the submontane tract to the west of the district. It enters the district in the extreme west of pargana Gunwarich and then flows along the southern borders, leaving the district at Lakarmandi opposite Ayodhya, the distance between its entry and exit being about 88 km. Within its wide bed it rolls from from one side to the other changing its channel almost every year between the shifting sandy banks. The land along the river on either side is always liable to be cut away during the rains and for this reason the area of the district is label to annual verialims.

   Lakes

There are various lakes too in the district,some important are Banki, Kodar, Aranga, Parwati & Pathri. Banki is situated in the west near Dubaha bazar. Kodar is near Wazirganj, Parwati is near Tikri, this is biggest in size Pathri is near Khorahsa.

   Climate

India is a tropical country & has got Monsooni climate. Gonda being a plainy district is not an exception. It has got the same climate that of the country in generate. There are three seasons,summer,rainy and winter. Summer is from March to June. The average temperature of the summer is nearly 30°c. Hot wind namely ‘Loo’ blows in May and in early June. Rainy season is from July to October. Rainy take place mostly up to September winter is from. November to February last half of December and first half of January are maximum cold.

   Forest

As for as the form of natural vegetation in Gonda is concerned, there are two remarkable areas,One the forests of kuwano,which has various types of prees lipe Sagon ,Haldu, Sal,Shishaw, Tibau,Mahua, Bass ,Neem, Jamun, Mayo etc.To the forest of Mankapur to Tipri and around Tipri.The types of press are Tibau ,Sakhu,Sal etc. Sandy Lomay and clay are the types of soils found in Gonda. Water per collars downward in sandy soils , so those are not very fertile . Never the less , Zayad crops are produced near the batps of rivers in this soil. Loamy soil is fertile. It has fossils and minerals also. It is found in uproar part of Gonda.

   Soil

The colour of loamy soil is light yellow. It is found around Khorahsa,DumariyaDeeh, Gonda etc. India thok Mankapur etc. Clay soils can hold water in it, so it is suitable far those crops, which require more water , specially paddy. It becomes hard when dries it is found around ColonelGanj, Itiathok and Mankapur.

 
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